Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder of the kidneys. It is can be carried in the genes and may be inherited. This disorder is characterized by numerous cluster kidney cysts which in turn cause the kidneys to become swollen or enlarged. It is also known as polycystic kidney syndrome.
There are two known types of polycystic kidney disease. One is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is the most common and the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease which is uncommon. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease or ADPKD is inherited via an autosomal dominant trait where the children of a family have a 50 percent possibility of acquiring the disease if one of their parents carries the gene. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease or ARPKD appears in less common than ADPKD. However, it is the most serious among the two as if an infant or child is affected the disease worsens very rapidly.
The symptoms which may appear in people with polycystic kidney disease are flank pain, abdominal pain, increase night urination, hematuria (blood in the urine), nail irregularities, drowsiness, and joint pain. Signs may include high blood pressure, heart murmurs, enlarged liver, cyst growth in the kidneys.
Several tests may be done to check for this kidney disorder. These tests include urinalysis to detect hematuria, CBC or complete blood count, cerebral angiography, IVP or intravenous pyelogram as well as abdominal MRI, CT Scan and ultrasound.
In treating patients with polycystic kidney disease, physicians are very keen in preventing further complications or damage while at the same time making sure that most if not all of the symptoms are controlled. Patients may be given diuretics, blood pressure medications, antibiotics if UTI or urinary tract infection is observed as well as the patient being put on a low-salt diet.
Early treatment for patients with this kidney disease is surgery to remove the cysts while end-stage treatment may include any or both of the following kidney transplant and/or a dialysis.